The British invented modern policing in the early 19th century, establishing the ‘Peelian Principles’ of policing by consent. (After Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel) http://www.lacp.org/2009-Articles-Main/062609-Peels9Principals-SandyNazemi.htm
One of those principles is “to use only the minimum degree of physical force which is necessary on any particular
occasion for achieving a police objective“.
Most police officers in the UK do not carry guns. The typical British ‘bobbies’ are expected to carry out their
duties armed only with cuffs, a baton, and pepper spray. Firearms are restricted to special units whose members have special experience and training
British police seem to adhere far more closely to Peelian principles than American police do. Perhaps we should look at them as a model for reform.